During Islamic Golden Age(8th to 15th centuries) Muslim scientists made crucial contributions to Astronomy.
They collected and corrected previous astronomical data developed by Kuffar, built the world’s first observatory and developed numerous astronomical instruments including Astrolabe.
Al Farghani, famous astronomer of the 9th century was involved in the research on diameter of earth together with other scientists during the caliphate of Ma’mun who greatly supported astronomical research through the “House of Wisdom”(intellectual centre during golden age) in Baghdad.
Al Farghani’s book, “A Compendium of the Science of the Stars” written about 833 AD remained very popular in europe for the next centuries and was even translated into Latin. It gave a discriptive summary on Almagest of Ptolemy and even corrected many of his findings.
Between 1025 AD and 1028 AD, Ibn al-Haytham wrote his Al-Shukuk ala Batlamyus (meaning “Doubts on Ptolemy”) which also criticized Ptolemy’s Almagest, Planetary Hypotheses, and Optics and pointed out various contradictions.
In 1070 AD, Abu Ubayd al Juzjani even proposed a solution for these errors of Ptolemy.
Islamic influence on Chinese astronomy was first recorded during the Song dynasty when a Hui Muslim astronomer named Ma Yize introduced the concept of 7 days in a week and made other contributions.
Islamic astronomy attained a good reputation in China for its theory of planetary latitudes, which did not exist in Chinese astronomy at the time, and also for its accurate prediction of eclipses.
Nasir al Din tusi in his “Tadhkira” wrote about the real essence of the Milky way which was proved three centuries later when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered the same.
In reality, Many of the scientists of Kuffar actually did nothing other than copying and stealing the texts of Muslim scientists.