Algebra, Developed by Muhammed ibn Musa al Khawarirzmi(780-850) is the most important Muslim contribution to the modern world.
In his book, “Compendious book on calculation by completion and balancing” , he set forth the basic principles of Algebraic equations.
Name of the book even contains the word “Al-Jabr” meaning completion, from which latin word Algebra is derived.
He explains how to use algebraic equations with unknown variables to solve real world problems like Zakat calculation and inheritence division.
His books were translated into Latin in Europe in the 1000s and 1100s.
Without his works in developing algebra, modern practical applications of Math such as Engineering would not be possible.
His works were used as Math textbooks in European universities for hundred years after his death.