For Centuries, libraries of Baghdad were unrivaled. The House of Wisdom, established soon after the city was built, was a magnet for the most intelligent scientists, thinkers, mathematicians, and linguists of the world. The rulers were patrons of literature, science, and the arts.

It was at this historic and landmark city that the Mongols arrived in 1258 AD. Their army, estimated at over 150,000 soldiers, stood before the city which was the great capital of the Muslim world for centuries. On February 10th, 1258, the Mongols entered the city, marking the end of the Islamic Golden Age.

A full week of pillage and destruction commenced. The Mongols showed no mercy in destroying Masjids, hospitals, libraries, and palaces. The books from Baghdad’s libraries were thrown into the Tigris River in such quantities that the river ran black with the ink from the books. The world will never truly know the extent of what knowledge was lost forever when those books were thrown into the river or burned.

It is estimated that nearly 1,000,000 people were butchered, which left Baghdad completely depopulated and uninhabitable.

📝The Mongol invasion is one of the most demoralizing times of Islamic history. The death and destruction similar to this was not seen again in the Muslim world. The Muslim world was largely unable to repel the Mongol invasion due to lack of Islamic values, disunity, weak political and military institutions.

Throughout Islamic history, disunity has always led to destruction and defeat while “Unity” has led to great Islamic empires that benefited the entire world.