The city of Samarkand(Present day Uzbekistan) was attacked and conquered surprisingly by Qutayba bin Muslim without providing the enemy the option to Accept Islam, Paying of Jizya or War.
The priests of Samarkand sent a messenger to caliph Umar bin Abdul Azeez complaining about this matter. Hearing this, Caliph sent an immediate message to the Muslim Judge in Samarkand to study the situation and settle the matter.
After consulting with Qutayba bin Muslim and the Priests of Samarkand, the Muslim judge issued the ruling;
“I rule that all armies of Muslims should get out of this country and give it back to its people and give them the opportunity to prepare for war, and then make them choose between Islam, tribute or war. If they chose war then we will fight. Muslims will get out of Samarkand without anything just as they entered and deliver the city to its people, and that is the application of the law of Almighty Allah and the Sunnah of our Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him”.
Upon this, Muslims evacuated the city. The judge came out in front of the priests. The priests did not believe what they were witnessing. The people of Samarkand kept watching Muslims until they all left their city.
The young priest said, “What they did proves that their religion is the right. I witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger.” Now all the priests proclaimed the Testimony of Faith لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله and accepted Islam.
This is the story of the greatest Islamic court ruling in the history. It satisfied the people of Samarkand with the rule of Islam and, as a result, people entered Islam in hordes.
– Stories from the history, the story of Samarkand court by Sheikh Tantawi & Islam and international law by Sheikh Wahbeh al-Zuhili