The first recorded instance of a pen with self-contained ink is in 953. Al – Nu’man, an advisor to Sultan Al – Mu’izz of Egypt, recounts the commissioning of the construction of a fountain pen:

“We wish to construct a pen which can be used for writing without having recourse to an ink-holder and whose ink will be contained inside it. A person can fill it with ink and write whatever he likes. The writer can put it in his sleeve or anywhere he wishes and it will not stain nor will any drop of ink leak out of it. The ink will flow only when there is an intention to write. We are unaware of anyone previously ever constructing (a pen such as this) and an indication of ‘penetrating wisdom’ to whoever contemplates it and realises its exact significance and purpose”. I exclaimed, “Is this possible?” He replied, “It is possible if God so wills”.

A craftsman was tasked with this project. A few days later he brought a pen that wrote when it was filled with ink. The ink did not spill when handled – even when the pen was flipped over. The pen would only release ink when used for writing and did not stain the Sultans hands or clothes when used. There was no longer a need for an ink bottle.